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成人英语三级考试语法基础知识:句法分析

1、主语:是句子要说明的人或物,可以作主语的成分有名词,主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家!

  1)Mr. Lee is a well-known scientist. 名词作主语

  2)He reads newspapers everyday. 代词作主语

  3)Two and ten is twelve. 数词作主语

  4)Smoking is harmful to the health. 动名词作主语

  5)To swim in that pool is a great pleasure. 动词不定式作主语

  6)What we shall do next is not yet decided. 从句作主语

  2、谓语: 说明主语的动作,状态或特征

  1)The new term begins on the 1st of September.

  2)His father is an engineer.

  3)She seemed happy.

  4)Li Hua showed me his album.

  3、宾语:指的是及物动词涉及到的人或物

  1)Wang Ling lent me a novel to read in the bus.

  2)The medicine is good for a cold.

  3)How many pieces do you want?

  4)My little sister always likes to ask questions.

  5)Would you mind coming earlier tomorrow?

  6)He asked me what I was going to do tonight

  4、宾语补足语:在宾语后面补充说明宾语的动作、状态、特征。

  1)The government appointed(任命)her chief delegate (首席代表)to the conference.

  2)I don‘t believe the story true.

  3)You should put your things in order(有序).

  4)The doctor advised her to stay in bed for a week.

  5)We saw the pupils playing basketball.

  5、表语:位于系动词如be之后,说明主语身份,特征,属性或状态。

  1)Wang‘s father is a doctor.

  2)He is always careless.

  3)The basketball match is on.

  4)All the pupils are on the playground now.

  5)Our aim is to win more medals.

  6)His work is teaching French.

  7)The question is who can really repair the machines.

  还有位于以下系动词后面的词,我们也称之为表语:

  表示感官的:look--fxgr--seem(看起来)、sound(听起来)、smell(闻起来)、taste(尝起来)、feel(感觉起来):

  He looks disappointed(形容词作表语)他看起来很失望。

  The rubbish smells terrible.垃圾很难闻。

  表示变化的:get、become、turn(变得)。It becomes hotter and hotter(形容词作表语)。 天变得越来越热了。

  6、定语:是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,翻译常用‘……的’表示。

  Tom is a handsome boy. The two boys are students.

  His boy needs Tom's pen. The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours.

  The boy needs a ball pen. The best boy here is Tom.

  There is nothing to do today. The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother.

  This is the new dictionary which I bought yesterday.

  7、状语:状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明方式、因果、条件、时间、地点、让步、方向、程度、目的等。

  1)She sings quite well.

  2)On Sundays, there is no student in the classroom.

  3)He sits there, asking for a pen.

  4)The boy needs a pen to do his homework.

  5)If I have some spare time, I will read some story-books.

  8、同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分,近乎于后置定语。如:

  We students should study hard.(students是we的同位语,都是指同一批‘学生’)

  We all are students.(all是we的同位语,都指同样的‘我们’)


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